Radlines:Editorial guidelines

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Revision as of 12:02, 6 September 2019 by Mikael Häggström (talk | contribs) (→‎Coding: Expanded)
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This page in a nutshell:

Create new article

How to edit

Editors of articles must be doctors of medicine, or have formal expertise in radiology by other means.

See Radlines:About#Participation on how to become an active article editor.

Generally, be bold, and make changes whenever you think it will improve the site.

One highly beneficial method for editing is to write while performing the task at hand for an actual case, in order to discern what content is most relevant in that situation.

"Edit" or "Edit source"

When clicking "Edit", you use an editor (VisualEditor) that is "What You See Is What You Get". When you click "Edit source", you edit in wikitext. It is preferable that you'll get used to using wikitext, such as by Wikipedia help:Wikitext. Use Radlines:Upload for file uploads rather than the Insert > Media in VisualEditor (the latter is not tailored to the project, but please leave a message at the discussion page if you have a solution).

Recommended approach

Just start editing, taking the style to look similar to any relatively well developed article such as X-ray of hip dysplasia. If you do not know the tool or wiki code for what you want to do, just do something that makes it look as similar as possible, such as:

  • Headers using UPPER CASE LETTERS
  • Reference numbering using brackets, such as [1] in the text, and simply drop the PMID, DOI or web address of the source at the bottom (accurate formatting can be fixed later).

User page

A user page is the presentation page of that person, and can be found (and then edited) by clicking the username at top right. Recommended (but not mandatory) content of a user page includes:

  • Real name
  • Education, experience in radiology as well as current position.
  • An upload of a portrait of the user.
  • An external link to another website presenting the user.

The user page is not a personal website, blog, or social networking medium. They should be used to better participate in the community, and not used to excess for unrelated purposes.


It is acceptable to write from experience if editing under one's real name rather than a username, although material should preferably still be supported by reliable external sources whenever it is likely that such exists for the topic of a sentence or section. Such external sources should, where available, be secondary ones such as textbooks and reviews rather than primary studies.

When editing under one's real name, it is also acceptable to use a hospital as a reference for local practices, as for example in X-ray of knee prosthesis#Reporting.

Use only in-line referencing,[notes 1] using the "Cite" tab in "Edit" mode, and <ref> and </ref> in "Edit source" mode (see Wikipedia:Footnotes for additional help). With a known doi code for the reference, the {T} DOI reference generator can quickly generate the full citation. Likewise, the Biomedical citation maker can be used to generate full citations from PMID or PMCID.

Geographic origin

Geographic origin should be specified in the text for guidelines or other information that are expected to vary, including positive and negative predictive values of investigations (which depend on prevalences and incidences in the population). On the other hand, any geographic origin does not need to be stated for more universal knowledge such as sensitivity and specificity of investigations (which are independent on prevalences and incidences), or imaging findings. Geographic origin can be given in prose such as "a US practice is to...", or in the beginning of a reference, such as:

  • USA: Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K. (2014). "Bladder Malignancies on CT: The Underrated Role of CT in Diagnosis

". American Journal of Roentgenology 203 (2): 347–354. doi:10.2214/AJR.13.12021. ISSN 0361-803X. 


In wiki code, it is recommended to add references by within <ref> and </ref> tags, in addition to adding the {{Top}} and {{Bottom}} templates to their respective places. Such <ref> tags can be automatically generated from the doi codes at this site:

For example, entering 10.1038/438900a at the former page yields the following text:

  • <ref name="pmid16355180">{{cite journal| author=Giles J| title=Internet encyclopaedias go head to head. | journal=Nature | year= 2005 | volume= 438 | issue= 7070 | pages= 900-1 | pmid=16355180 | doi=10.1038/438900a | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=16355180 }} </ref>

When inserted in an article, it gives the following at the bottom:

". Nature 438 (7070): 900-1. doi:10.1038/438900a. PMID 16355180. Archived from the original. . 


Notes are added by adding group= to the ref tag, such as:

Contentious matters

Dubious or insufficiently referenced texts should be corrected, removed, or marked with inline cleanup tags, such as:
[Dubious ] - in source code editing, this is added by the addition of {{Dubious}}.
[Citation needed] - by {{Citation needed}}.
[Better source needed] - by {{Better source}}.

When sources have conflicting information, the alternatives are:

  • Mention the differences (such as in Neck#Trauma). This is generally recommended when guidelines come from different countries.
  • Choose one that is from a more reliable source, or seems more reasonable. In such cases, a note may be made about alternatives (such as in Fluoroscopy of central venous catheters#Notes).


To be mentioned among the authors of an article, a user must:

  • Use his/her real name in the author list (regardless of username used for editing).
  • Have made a significant contribution to the article. There is no strict cutoff to what is significant, so in case of uncertainty it is recommended to make an entry at the Discussion page of the article on the matter. If there is no response after 4 days, it is acceptable to add oneself in the author list after contributing to the article.

Being listed as an author implies a shared responsibility for the content of the article.

The preferable wiki coding for stating authorship of an article is to add the {{Top}} template, such as in the text below, followed by a {{Bottom}} at the bottom of the article.

|author1=[[User:Mikael Häggström|Mikael Häggström]]

When at least one author is listed, and edits have been made by additional users (regardless of fulfilling the criteria above), et al. should be added to the author list, linking to the "View history" page of the article, in order to denote that the listed author(s) is not the only contributor(s).

When a substantial amount of content (with no strict threshold but often corresponding to about a section) is copied or closely paraphrased from a source with a Creative Commons license that includes attribution (such as CC-BY), the authors of that article should be mentioned at top, such as "Authors of integrated Creative Commons article" followed by a reference to that article. If only minor portions of such article is integrated, it is enough to mention the authors by a reference at the integrated material.

Target audience

The text should be written to be understood by a medical school graduate with corresponding radiology knowledge. It should be concise, so that a radiologist (or graduate training to become a radiologist) at work can quickly find the information of interest. For example, do not state what the reader most definitely already knows, such as "the exam can be done for both emergent and non-emergent reasons".

It should assumed that the readers do not know the names for the radiologic findings at hand, nor which conditions are causing them when trying to find their way through the inter-article structure of Radlines (described in sext section).

Text can be written in imperative format where appropriate, such as "Look at..." or "Avoid...".

The ambition should be what is acceptable for a general radiologist without sub-specialization to perform. More detailed evaluations should be linked to separate articles, whose title can begin as "Beyond the acceptable for evaluating...".

Inter-article structure

Articles in Radlines can be directly found by search engine, either by the internal search box at top, or external ones. In addition, each article subject should be connected with the main page through links in a series of pages, so that a radiologist can find their way to it by the appearance of that condition. For example, Angiomyolipoma should be found by clicking links in articles in the following sequence:

Level Main Location Location Modality+Location Modality+Presentation+Location Disease
Example Main Abdomen and pelvis Kidneys CT of the kidneys CT of renal mass Angiomyolipoma

There may be variations in the level structure, such as additional levels between the ones above, or articles about diseases in specific locations or by a specific modality.

By linking to further information in other articles, each article should be kept short enough to be read conveniently for a radiologist working with the subject at hand. Practically, this allows for somewhat longer articles for non-emergent exams.

No orphans

The creator of a new article must link the article back through a likely sequence that a radiologist would find that condition when seeing it. Articles lacking an unbroken connection to the main page should be tagged with {{Orphan}}, and should be either connected to a sequence or deleted (if the author has been notified of this intention but hasn't made amendments in over two weeks).

Structuring into these levels require more extensive work for more systemic diseases. Arthritis, for example, must be added in the articles of multiple joints. It is the responsibility of the creator of such a disease article to add it to all locations where it is well known to be relevant. It may therefore be more simple to start with for example X-ray of arthritis of the hand, which only needs linking from X-ray of the hand.

An author wanting to upload a case must therefore make sure that there is at least a short article about the condition in general, for example a general article about angiomyolipoma (or CT or other specified modality of angiomyolipoma) when wanting to upload images of an unusual presentation of it.


Forking means to make one or more sub-articles from contents of a longer article. This should be done when the resultant structure better conforms to the inter-article structure above, and also when an article exceeds 15-20 images. The parent article should link to the fork by the following note at the top of the section:

Main article: Fork title

This can be generated by the template {{Main|Fork title}}. The section of the parent article should also contain a short summary of the most relevant aspects of the topic. As an example, see:

No plain lists of causes

No lists of causes.png
Potential causes seen on X-ray of hip pain.

When linking to a condition from the previous level in the sequence, it must not be done by including it in a plain list of causes. Rather, it must be integrated so that it is clear how it is different from other conditions. It can be done in prose (such as at Evaluation of suspected bladder tumors where for example a lack of enhancement indicates hematoma), and/or a table such as this example of how to include Angiomyolipoma in the article CT of renal mass:

Causes of renal mass: CT findings[1]
Angiomyolipoma Macroscopic fat
Renal cell cancer No fat
etc. etc.

At least the most common causes should be mentioned in such differentials.

If there is no radiologic appearance that distinguishes the condition from one or more other conditions, then another type of distinctive feature needs to be mentioned, such as a specific clinical symptom, or epidemiology including incidence or prevalence. Images of the conditions are sufficient when the difference is visually obvious.[notes 2]

Exemptions to the rule of no lists of causes:

  • Modality+location articles may contain a "Diseases" or "Objectives" section. See below for requirements.
  • If the article as a whole clearly conveys unique characteristics for each listed condition.
  • The list has a description that radiologists generally do not need to distinguish between the conditions, and why that is the case. Reasons include that the conditions are rare or insignificant so that radiologists generally do not need to screen for them unless specifically asked by the referring clinician.

Current focus

The main focus is currently to achieve a complete collection of the essential material that a newly certified radiologist is expected to know after the training years. Radlines currently needs to establish articles for the most common medical imaging modalities and locations, as well as the most important diseases and conditions. Cases should preferably be typical of the disease or condition at hand. The most important initial sections thereof are generally "Evaluation" or "Basic screening", as well as "Choice of modality" (when to consider other modalities, where applicable).

Addition of relatively rare conditions or cases with atypical presentations are acceptable already, but before doing so you must first establish at least one chain of inter-article structure linking back to the main page.

For most needed articles, see Radlines:Contribute.

Radlines is made by humans

Do not import or generate content in large amounts by automatic applications. It is acceptable to copy-paste text from other sources with compatible licensing (see Radlines:Copyright), but it needs to be properly integrated into the context of existing Radlines material.

It is acceptable to perform automated maintenance tasks, such as making terminology or organization more consistent, but it should be done with care, because an unusual layout or wording may be better for certain conditions.

Radlines uses Categories for scrolling among less common diseases. However, categories are not a replacement for articles that describe, summarize and distinguish related topics.


Computed tomography should be abbreviated as CT, and magnetic resonance imaging should be abbreviated as MRI, since medical doctors can be presumed to be familiar with these.

Similarly, projectional radiography should be termed X-ray in article titles, but the introduction should include projectional radiography ("X-ray") to specify the scope, and X-ray should thereafter be used in article prose as well.


Use Radlines:Upload to upload new files.

  • See Radlines:Copyright for information regarding what images you may upload.
  • See #Cases below for case-related guidelines.
Image description.

Images can be added in articles by clicking the "Edit" tab at top and then "Insert" and "Media". In source code, images are added to the right in the text by the following code for an example file "File:T1-weighted-MRI.png":
[[File:T1-weighted-MRI.png|thumb|150px|Image description.]]

For more rendering alternatives, see Mediawiki:Help:Images



Add internal links for words that are notable enough in radiology to have their own article, whether or not that article exists yet or not. In source code editing, internal links are created by adding [[ and ]] around the word or words. The text can be made different than the linked article title by [[title|text]]. For example, [[Reporting|General notes on reporting]] shows as General notes on reporting but links to the article Reporting.


External links, when not used as references, should be kept in a separate section at the end of an article. They should only include open access pages. External links are not a replacement for writing content in Radlines with the same topic.
In source code, external links are added by [URL title]. For example, with the following code:
*[https://www2.aofoundation.org/wps/portal/surgery?showPage=diagnosis&bone=Femur&segment=Proximal AO classification of proximal femur fractures]
The following link is generated:

An exception is radiographic positioning, where links to the corresponding article in wikiradiography can be added in the body of an article. For example, Forearm may contain the following links:

General section recommendations

Suggested headers for different types of articles are given in their sections below. Still, it is not necessary for the creator of an article to start multiple sections right away, but can let it grow with time by collaborative editing.

Radiographic positioning and settings may contain a link to one or more relevant articles in wikiradiography. For example, Forearm may contain the following links:

Sections to generally avoid:

  • Anatomy sections should generally not be used, because any relevant anatomy should be integrated into its context in other sections.
  • Treatment, unless regularly performed by radiologists themselves. Otherwise, information about treatment is only relevant if being written together with how it affects the way to plan, evaluate or report on the imaging.
  • Section headers without content, where section content should be added right away, or the header be removed.

Modality+Location articles

Example: CT of the thorax.


  • Normal anatomy, preferably including various age groups, such as at X-ray of the hand
  • "Normal" findings in chronic conditions, which are generally not used in the diagnosis of that condition. This includes expected findings in congenital conditions whose diagnosis is generally made clinically or genetically close to birth, thereby allowing radiologists to determine if a finding is part of their known condition or because of a new disease or disorder.
  • Basic screening, which should generally be done regardless of the issue raised by the referral
  • Diseases and conditions or Objectives:
As the list becomes larger, with over 5-10 entries, only the most common or otherwise significant ones should remain in the article, and the rest be moved to anatomic sub-regions or be linked from a separate category page.
  • Techniques, with subtypes of the topic at hand, such as CT of the thorax having a section on CT angiography of the region.
  • Report, containing at least a report on a basic screening of the investigation at hand. It is recommended to also insert the template {{Reporting}} below the header in order to link to general notes about reporting. It does not need to mention "additional findings upon image evaluation" or similar.

Modality-unspecific disease or presentation articles

Examples: Urolithiasis, Neck trauma

These articles should focus on the planning of the investigation, such as by the following layout:

  • Planning, which assumes that there is a referral specifically asking for an investigation of the subject at hand. Recommended subsections include:
  • Justification of the investigation, such as symptoms raising the suspicion of the condition.
  • Choice of modality, with preferable modalities and their main factors to consider in the choice.
  • How soon the investigation should be done.

The title should generally not be in plural.

Other aspects of the disease should generally be added at linked modality-specific articles.

Preferably, the section should be written as a template (see #Templates section below) that can be displayed in the modality-specific articles as well, such as Template:Neck trauma - choice of modality, which is shown both in Neck trauma and CT of the neck in trauma.

Modality-specific disease or presentation articles

Example: X-ray of distal radius fracture


The title should include all the components (such as X-ray of distal radius fracture) unless the condition is specific for a particular location (such as Ultrasonography of appendicitis). Adpositions are generally "of", "in" or "for". There is no need for "suspected" or "possible" even for investigations generally used to rule out the disease.

The disease may be either in the plural form (such as in X-ray of fractures) or singular form (such as in X-ray of distal radius fracture).


The recommended layout is as follows:

  • Introduction, including a definition of the condition, and/or links to parent articles where available. For example, the introduction in the article X-ray of hip prostheses can start as "For X-ray of the hip joint in the presence of a prosthesis...".
  • Planning. Possible content includes:
  • Choice of modality, describing when to use available modalities (and not just "modalities may include:" or similar). This subsection should be written as a template (see #Templates section below) that can be displayed in modality-unspecific articles as well, such as Template:Neck trauma - choice of modality, which is shown both in Neck trauma and CT of the neck in trauma. Include the "Choice of modality" header in the template. Thereby, these templates are editable by clicking the edit button by that header.
  • How soon the investigation should be done
  • What settings or sequences of for example MRI or CT are recommended
  • Quality checking, including signs that the investigation needs to be redone
  • Analysis of Findings, whose structure of subsections should generally be based on appearance, but sometimes on other information that is generally known, such as age of the patient for bone tumors.[2]
It is also recommended to link to general screening in CT and MRI for the location at hand, such as CT in dementia linking to Basic screening of head CT.
  • Further evaluation, with important concomitant findings when the disease is known, such as staging of cancers.
  • Report, preferably including at least one example of a report with typical findings of a disease (Example), as well as one report including the most important absences of findings when the disease is important to rule out. It is recommended to also insert the template {{Reporting}} below the header in order to link to general notes about reporting. Different levels of comprehensiveness is preferable, such as at X-ray of hip prostheses#Report.

Disease articles can have a short introduction with one or two sentences about pathophysiology, and likewise for symptoms, prognosis and general treatment. Otherwise, these aspects should only be included where relevant in the radiologic differential diagnosis. These aspects are not necessary if the differential diagnosis can be made by visible radiologic findings alone.


Case descriptions should be written entirely in the description page of the uploaded image. Descriptions must include:

  • Consent note, for example "Verbal consent"

The following additional data are preferable:

  • Diagnostic certainty, from "Possible", "Probable", "Almost certain" to "Certain", or "Not applicable"
  • Patient age
  • Patient sex
  • Patient history and/or symptoms
  • Findings in the image

Multiple images

In cases with 2 or 3 images, it can be done by either:

  • Copying the descriptions to each image page.
  • Make an article starting as "Case of a ...", and linking to that article in each image page.
  • Templating, as described in the #Templates section below. For this purpose, the steps include:
    • Giving the template a title, for example: 26 year old woman with ectopic pregnancy, description
    • Write the case description on the template page. On the template page, tt is also recommended to list all images that belong to the case.
    • Press save, and implement the template in each related image.

Image stacks

Caption of 1st image
Next image has no caption
Computed tomography of human brain (14).png

Image stacks such as for CTs and MRIs can be created by choosing "Edit source" and adding for example the following code (resultant stack displayed at right):

|File:Computed tomography of human brain (16).png|Caption of 1st image
|File:Computed tomography of human brain (15).png|Next image has no caption
|File:Computed tomography of human brain (14).png|

To make it easier for both yourself and the reader, limit the stack to only the images necessary to demonstrate the conditions at hand.

To move through the images, hover over the image and use scroll wheel, drag the mouse over the image, or click the < or the > above each stack. This functionality should activate when the page is fully loaded, which may take some if there are many images in the stack.



The recommended layout is as follows:

  • Planning or Preparation
  • Choice of modality
  • Bleeding, such as by the template {{Low risk of bleeding}}
  • Choice of material and/or instruments, for example "Transducer choice" for ultrasonographic interventions
  • Patient information
  • Time taken, which can be given as the time usually allotted to the procedure.
  • Procedure
  • Report

Example: Ultrasound-guided hip joint injection

How to create a new article

You need to create an account and become approved as Editor before being able to create articles. See Radlines:About#Participation. As an approved Editor, you can create an article as follows:

You also get the alternative to create an article by clicking red links (terms lacking an article), or by searching for such terms in the search box at top right.


A template has the ability to show the same material in multiple pages, and edits to it show up immediately in all those pages.


This table appears in multiple articles
Size classification of infrarenal aorta edit
Ectatic or
mild dilatation
>2.0 cm and <3.0 cm[3]
Moderate 3.0 - 5.0[3] (or 5.5)[4] cm
Large or severe >5.0[3] or 5.5[4] cm

For example, the template {{Diameters of abdominal aorta}} shows a table of the diameters of the aorta in both of these articles:

This avoids contradictions and missed locations when the data needs to be updated.

Templates can be used for data tables, like the example, that are applicable to multiple articles. They can also be used for case descriptions on each related image page as described in the Cases section above.

However, they should not be used for article prose, whose optimal wording often depends on the context of the article.

Common templates include:


For templates used in articles, preferably make a table box for template content, to show what content belongs to the template, such as {{Low risk of bleeding}} (from top menu, or by placing


at the top and


below template content.


Write the same title, surrounded by two curly brackets on each side, where the template is needed, such as:
{{26 year old woman with ectopic pregnancy, description}}


Alternatively, templates can be edited by searching for the template title in the search bar at top, preceded by Template: but without the curly brackets, such as:
Template:26 year old woman with ectopic pregnancy, description

When editing or viewing a template page, the pages where it is used are found at "What links here" in the left menu.

Technical description of templates in MediaWiki: MediaWiki: Help: Templates

Variations of English

Radlines articles may be written in American English (such as tumor) or British English (such as tumour). Keep a consistent format within each article; If an article is started in American English, make any additions in American English as well.

Talk pages

Talk pages of each article is found by clicking the "Discussion" tab above. Use the "Edit source" or "Add topic" to make additional entries. Add ~~~~ at the end, which will add your username and timestamp. The "Add a comment" functionality is reserved for readers who do not have Editor permission.

Introducing new editors

New editors can be welcomed by adding the following, or similar, on their talk pages (which can be found by entering "User talk:" followed by the username in the search bar):

  • Welcome to Radlines! I have received your submitted form, and I have now added you as an editor of Radlines. You will find more information on how to contribute at Radlines:Contribute. (If the new editor has approved this in the form:) I have also added you at Radlines:About#Editors. You are welcome to add more details about yourself there, as well as at your user page (see Radlines:Editorial guidelines#User_page). Again, welcome! (Signature)

In source code editing, the above may be added by copy-pasting the following text:

  • Welcome to Radlines! I have received your submitted form, and I have now added you as an editor of Radlines. You will find more information on how to contribute at [[Radlines:Contribute]]. I have also added you at [[Radlines:About#Editors]]. You are welcome to add more details about yourself there, as well as at your user page (see [[Radlines:Editorial guidelines#User_page]]). Feel free to ask me if you have any further questions. Again, welcome! ~~~~

See also


  1. Never just add a citation at the bottom of the article, even if it reflects all current content, since verification will be extremely difficult following future content additions
  2. Without the rule of no lists of causes, such lists in similar wiki projects such as Radiopaedia tend to develop into excessively long lists, which are not useful at all.


  1. Rinze Reinhard, Mandy van der Zon-Conijn and Robin Smithuis. Kidney - Solid masses. Radiology Assistant. Retrieved on 2018-05-26.
  2. Henk Jan van der Woude and Robin Smithuis. Bone tumor - Systematic approach and Differential diagnosis. Retrieved on 2018-05-26.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 . Archived copy. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08. Retrieved on 2017-08-23. Page 56] in: Philip Lumb (2014). Critical Care Ultrasound E-Book . Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323278171. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: single centre randomised controlled trial ". BMJ 330 (7494): 750. Apr 2005. doi:10.1136/bmj.38369.620162.82. PMID 15757960.